- Copyright © 2004 Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Successful seismic acquisition design is not a commodity; it is a process whose goal is to optimize the cost and quality of the seismic product, an interpretable image of the subsurface. To achieve this goal, an integrated team consisting of management, cross-disciplinary technical experts, and seismic contractors must be assembled to adequately define the acquisition problem. Once the problem is defined, design experts determine the seismic parameters, which the operations specialist will implement in the field.
This three-part series describes an innovative seismic acquisition design method, informally known as teepee technology that design experts at Phillips Petroleum have successfully implemented worldwide. This first article will describe the teepee philosophy. The second part demonstrates the methodology through application to 3D seismic acquisition on land. The final installment describes application of the process to a 3D OBC design.
The remainder of this article is a “teepee tutorial” whose purpose is to introduce the acquisition methodology that associates surface geometry with the desired subsurface illumination shape and its composites. The preferred shape of the subsurface coverage as a function of time has the appearance of a teepee—thus the nomenclature (Figure 1).
Teepees of rectangular base with the proper seismic design combine to provide uniform bin-to-bin characteristics such as fold, offset, and azimuth. The size, shape, resolution, density, and overlap of the teepees all relate to specific seismic parameters. Each seismic parameter directly relates to the cost and quality of the seismic survey. The five seismic parameters addressed in the teepee tutorial are geometry type, source effort, bin size, fold, and source-to-receiver offset.
Geometry type is the parameter related to the shape of the subsurface teepee. Geometries with a substantial difference in x-y dimensions produce long narrow teepees typical of swath geometry on …